How it Works

A signed order is required to process a test. This can be approved by an MD, DO, nurse practitioner or physician’s assistant. In some states, pharmacists may also order this and other tests.

In the metabolism of drugs, an individual can be classified in one of five categories (metabolism phenotype) for each gene, based on the activity of these pharmacogenomic proteins as defined by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC):

Normal (formerly extensive metabolizer) (NM/EM)

  • Fully functional enzyme activity.

Intermediate metabolizer (IM)

  • Decreased enzyme activity (activity between normal and poor metabolizer).

Poor Metabolizer (PM)

  • Little to no enzyme activity.

Rapid/Ultrarapid Metabolizer (UM)

  • Increased enzyme activity compared to normal metabolizers.

By considering an individual’s genetics relative to drug metabolizing enzymes, targets, receptors and transporters, healthcare providers can now apply this information to prescribing for optimal drug therapy.

2.2 million serious adverse events occur per year, according to a report published by the Journal of the American Medical Association. These ADEs lead to approximately 1.3 million emergency room (ER) visits per year, and $3.5 billion excess spend of medical costs. [1]

1 – National Human Genome Institute  – National Institutes of Health (NIH)  www.genome.gov

Until recently, medications have been developed with the idea that each drug works pretty much the same in everybody. However, genomic research has changed that “one size fits all” approach and opened the door to more personalized approaches to using and developing medications.

Depending on your genetic makeup, some medications may work more or less effectively for you than they do in other people. Likewise, some medications may produce more or fewer side effects in you than in someone else. As this science continues to evolve, healthcare providers will be able to routinely use information about your genetic makeup to choose those medications and drug doses that offer the greatest chance of helping you. 

PGx may also help to save you time and money. By using information about your genetic makeup, healthcare providers may be able to avoid the trial-and-error approach of giving you various medications that are not likely to work for you until they find the right one. UsingPGx, the “best-fit” drug to help you can be chosen from the beginning.

Nearly every test returns information that could, at some point, be beneficial to you, your physician, and your pharmacist. While this does not necessarily mean a PGx test will be relevant to a medication you are currently taking, nearly everyone tested will have a variation in their genes that applies to how your body processes medications.

RxGenomix is not a laboratory, but rather a PGx services company. RxGenomix partners with clinical testing laboratories that are accredited by the College of American Pathologists and meet the certification requirements for high complexity testing established under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments. RxGenomix then works with pharmacists and other healthcare providers to help them integrate the PGx testing process into their practice and provide enhanced clinical services to their patients.  

Some commercial insurance plans offer coverage for testing, but not all. Medicare also offers coverage for patients who qualify. 

Each human being has some 30,000 genes in their DNA. Our current PGx testing looks at just 23 of those. That’s it. We’re only testing for variations in these few genes that affect how your body processes medications, or doesn’t.

Some of the more common conditions treated by these medications include, but are not limited to:

  • Chronic or acute pain
  • blood pressure (elevated)
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • other mental health conditions
  • diabetes
  • cholesterol (elevated)
  • cancer
  • arthritis
  • acid reflux
  • peptic ulcer
  • acid reflux
  • migraines
  • thyroid disorders
  • asthma/COPD
  • heart attack

Genes tested include, but aren’t limited to, the Cytochrome P450 enzymes—CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4/5, and others. Other proteins, such as VKORC1 and SLCO1B1 represent drug targets and transporters, respectively. Click here for a complete list of genes tested.

Pharmacogenomics (PGx) uses information about a person’s genetic makeup, or genome, to choose the medications and drug doses that are likely to work best for that particular person. This new field combines the science of how medications work, called pharmacology, with the science of the human genome, called genomics.

The test itself is painless and non-invasive, taking only a minute or two. The sample is collected by rubbing a swab inside each cheek for about 30 seconds and sending it off to the lab. That’s all there is to it.

Our testing produces a report that tells us if the genes responsible for putting a medication to work in your body are functioning properly. If they’re not, a common drug that’s safe for most could be ineffective or even dangerous for you. PGx testing is really the only way to know this before you begin taking a drug.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently has pharmacogenomic information listed in the package labeling of more than 250 medications, including many of the most prescribed, and this number continues to grow. Testing can apply to prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, herbal supplements, nutraceuticals and recreational medications. 

RxGenomix respects your privacy, and that includes your genetic information. Even though this testing will only look at a very small set of genes limited to drug metabolism, only those involved in delivering the best healthcare for you will have access to this information and it will be used solely to create a more personalized medication plan for you. For more information, you can read about our complete privacy practices here.

Pharmacogenomics Course


CEI is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education (CPE). The following course is approved for 16.0 contact hour of CPE credit (1.6 CEUs). The ACPE Universal Activity Number for this activity is: 0107-9999-19-337-H01-P (pharmacists).

Available: October 26, 2019
Expiration Date: October 25, 2022

To obtain 16.0 contact hours of CPE credit for completing this course, “Pharmacogenomics,” participants must pre-register online, participate in the entire course, pass the final exam with a score of at least 70%, and complete the CPE assessment and evaluation questions.

ON DEMAND: To obtain 16.0 contact hours of continuing pharmacy education credit (1.6 CEUs), participants must pre-register for the course on the RxGenomix website (rxgenomix.com), complete the entire on-demand course, and pass the mid and final exams with scores of at least 70%.  Once completed, you will receive a code from RxGenomix and instructions on how to access the evaluation on the CEImpact LMS . Once the evaluation is successfully completed, click the Submit button. The CPE Statement of Credit can then be accessed on CPE Monitor, www.MyCPEMonitor.net.

  • Pharmacists



There is a fee of $349 associated with this activity.


“Pharmacogenomics” is a home study continuing education activity for pharmacists developed by RxGenomix.


The RxGenomix learning portal is designed to work with any current web browser. If you have any technical difficulties, please contact RxGenomix: info@rxgenomix.com. For best results, the following system capabilities are recommended:

  • Windows XP, Windows 2003 or Windows Vista
  • Display resolution of 800×600 or higher
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP1 or later, Firefox 2.0 or later, or Google Chrome 1.0
  • For Firefox and Chrome, Silverlight 1.0 or later
  • Windows Media Player 9.0 or later
  • Broadband Internet connection (256 Kbps or more)
  • No network blocks or filters that disable streaming media
  • Mac OS X 10.5 or later
  • Safari 2.0.4 or later (or Firefox 2.0 or later) Silverlight 1.0
  • Broadband Internet connection (256 Kbps or more)
  • No network blocks or filters that disable streaming media.

David Bright, PharmD, BCACP
Associate Professor of Pharmacy
Ferris State University

David Kisor, BS, PharmD, FCP
Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacogenomics
Manchester University

Director of Pharmacogenomics Programs
Manchester University

Brad Tice, PharmD, MBA, FAPhA
Founder and Shareholder, RxGenomix


David Bright, PharmD, BCACP declares financial interests for the following:

RelationshipName of Commercial InterestReceived
Co-investigatorGenemarkers, LLCHonorarium
Principal InvestigatorRiteAidFunded research

David Kisor, BS, PharmD, FCP declares financial interests for the following:

RelationshipName of Commercial InterestReceived
PGx Education ConsultantPWN Health, LLCConsulting fee

Brad Tice, PharmD, MBA, FAPhA declares financial interests for the following:

RelationshipName of Commercial InterestReceived
FounderRxGenomix, LLCShareholder

At the completion of this activity, pharmacists and pharmacy technicians will be able to:

  1. Define pharmacogenetics (PGt), pharmacogenomics (PGx), and the related nomenclature.
  2. Explain the scientific basis of genetic influence on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) related to drug and/or drug dose selection.
  3. Describe the types of DNA samples for PGt/PGx testing.
  4. Interpret PGt/PGx test results.
  5. Identify drug-gene and drug-drug-gene interactions in medication lists.
  6. Associate genetic and non-genetic factors which define a patient’s phenotype relative to response to medication therapy.
  7. Recommend specific alternative therapies and/or doses of specific medications based on PGt/PGx results.
  8. Relate pharmacist competencies in PGt/PGx to science and application.


Current testing and reporting includes no more than 23 genes out of nearly 30,000 in the human body. We are only looking at the genes that have a known impact on how your body processes medications.

RxGenomix will collect some key information about you, such as age, ethnicity, biological sex, history of certain health conditions, your medication history, and information about your physical and mental health, wellness and lifestyle.  These are all used to help create the best medication plan for you. Click here for a full statement of our privacy policies.

RxGenomix has partnered with Coriell Life Sciences to provide access to Gene Dose Live 2.0, a comprehensive clinical decision support tool that allows for rapid review of pharmacogenomic results, and alternative medication recommendations.  Pharmacists are able to contemplate numerous clinical considerations including genetics, disease state, lifestyle factors, drug-drug interactions, medication cost, and Beer’s list criteria. Pharmacists create a Medication Action Plan (MAP) detailing therapeutic change recommendations to the patient’s care plan. MAPs are then delivered to the patient’s treating provider as part of a collaborative consultation between the provider and a PGx-trained pharmacist. 

Yes. Your DNA won’t change, so your results today will be stored securely and could help inform treatment decisions for years to come. The DNA sample itself will be destroyed according to all applicable laws and regulations. For our full privacy policy, click here.

We may disclose your information to others involved in your care, including healthcare providers, laboratories, bioinformatics partners, the health system or clinic where your own provider practices, and other providers that you or your healthcare provider have designated to receive your information. Click here for a full statement of our privacy policies. 

No. After the lab has completed the analysis for our PGx panel, all material samples will be destroyed in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. We will only retain the data set related to your pharmacogenomic genes, not the source genetic material. For our full privacy policy, click here.

For Benefit Providers

If you are a benefit provider (employer, insurer, third-party administrator, etc.) we can help you start a program for those you serve. Contact us at (615) 814-2911 and we will work together to determine your needs, answer your questions and send you more information.

The RxGenomix population analytics tools can take the prescribing and healthcare claims data and turn it into actionable intelligence for a pharmacogenomics program. The tools will allow you to stratify your population and identify those for whom testing could do the most good, and produce an estimated return on investment.

No.  Federal congressional regulations, most notably the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 and the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA) prohibit employers from accessing patient-level data or using genetic information in employment and health insurance decisions. Where RxGenomix is engaged with employers, data is de-identified and aggregated to ensure compliance with law and patient-level data protection.

For Healthcare Providers

RxGenomix has built a Personalized Medication Hub which agnostically integrates through a secure API with the healthcare ecosystem. There are numerous Electronic Health Record (EHR) applications in the marketplace, each requiring a nuanced and unique approach to integration. RxGenomix is committed to an exceptionally high level of data security and, as such, each integration is contemplated on a case-by-case basis. Over time, RxGenomix will continue to scale its interoperability strategy for rational data exchange. 

Once you are registered and approved as a provider by RxGenomix, you will be granted access to the RxGenomix Hub, a secure online portal for both accessing test results and clinical decision support tools.

RxGenomix has a network of pharmacists specifically trained in applying pharmacogenomics. We also offer a thorough training program for pharmacists, should you have a particular pharmacist you’d like to involve in your program.

If you are a healthcare provider interested in offering testing to your patients, contact us today at (615) 814-2911. We will work together to determine your needs, answer your questions and send you more information. This includes pharmacists, MDs, DOs, physician’s assistants and nurse practitioners.